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新SAT语法标点符号题——逗号、分号、冒号用法讲解

2016年04月20日16:07 来源:互联网
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摘要:英文的标点符号林林总总,用法上严格来讲有很多条目。今天我们就来扒一扒标点符号在SAT考试中最常见的有哪些用法,并且以新SAT的官方指南中样题为例,总结下标点符号的常考用法。

新SAT语法标点符号题——逗号、分号、冒号用法讲解图1

逗号的定义

Comma:a punctuation mark, that is especially used as a mark of separation within a sentence.

从定义中不难看出,逗号的主要作用是分割,通过聚集或者分割单词、词组和从句,帮我们准确地理解句子意思。

逗号的用法

英文中逗号的用法主要有以下几种:

1)Use comma to separate items in a list.使用逗号分割并列列举的项

Eg:In order to survive in the wildness, she needs water, food, and other essential items.

2)Use comma to separate introductory phases from the sentences they introduce.使用逗号分割整句前的词组(“SVO,悬挂结构”或者“悬挂结构,SVO”)

Eg: Travelling in Beijing,I have to take my bag pack.

3)Use comma after connecting words and phases to show a clear relationship between two clauses or sentences.使用逗号分割主句和从句

Eg: Even though it appears a great idea, I still have to think it over.

4)Use comma to separate and distinguish additional or incidental information inserted into a sentence.使用逗号分割插入语和主句成分。

Eg:The Great Wall, one of the greatest places of interest in China, attracts millions of tourists every year.

涉及逗号的考试样题分析

OG1 P2 Dark snow

But Jason 15 Box, an associate professor of geology at Ohio State believes that another factor added to the early thaw:the “dark snow” problem.

A)NO CHANGE

B)Box an associate professor of geology at Ohio State,

C)Box, an associate professor of geology at Ohio State,

D)Box, an associate professor of geology, at Ohio State

解析:根据上述用法4),逗号用来分隔插入语和主句的其他成分,因此在“an associate professor of geology at Ohio State”前后都要加逗号隔开,因此正确选项只能为C。D选项中逗号若加在 ”at Ohio State”之前,则主句意思变为“Box在俄亥俄州相信…….”语意发生改变,句子不对。

这里关于逗号的用法可以更为直接的记为“插入语前后要由逗号(或者前后都为破折号)隔开”,只有插入语前面有逗号或者插入语后面有逗号都是不对的表达。

Tips:1) 主谓语之间或者谓语和宾语之间不能加逗号隔开。2) such as 前逗号可加可不加,但是such as 后一定不能加逗号。3) 逗号不能连接两个完整的句子。4) “, and”=“;”。

分号的定义

semicolon:a punctuation mark ; used chiefly in a coordinating function between major sentence elements (as independent clauses of a compound sentence)也就是说,分号主要是在句子间起连接作用的。(而逗号是不可以连接两个完整的句子的)

解题tips:很多时候就是从分号的定义本身去判断能否选做正确答案的,若分号前后不是完整句子,那么此选项一定是错误的!

分号的用法

英文中分号的主要作用如下:

1、Use semi-colons to indicate pauses longer than those associated with commas but shorter that those associated with fill-stop.用分号表达比句号短比逗号长的停顿

Eg: Functionalism in language teaching was taken by many to mean the complete exclusion of any focus on form in the classroom; grammar and the explicit teaching of rules simply had no place.

2、Use semi-colons immediately before linking words such as however, moreover, furthermore, nevertheless , therefore, and instead.用分号连接两个主从句或者并列句

Eg: The news may be unexpected; nevertheless it is true.

3、Use semi-colons to separate items in a list, where the list of items is long and/or each item in the list is too long to be separated by a comma .用分号连接太长而不能用逗号连接的(比如完整的句子)并列列举成分。

涉及分号的考试样题分析

Living independently and demonstrating an intense work 21 ethic; the Harvey Girls became known as a transformative force in the American West, inspiring books, documentaries, and even a musical.

A) NO CHANGE

B) ethic:

C) ethic, and

D) ethic,

解析:根据分号用法规则2,分号连接的是两个完整的句子,那么原文中的“Living…ethic”没有谓语动词,只是一个词组,用分号连接前后显然错误。C选项中“逗号+and”的作用=“分号”那么同样错误原因也是不对的,冒号的作用下文有涉及,主要为解释说明或举例,或引用,这里都不符号。只有逗号可以连接一个悬挂结构和主句,正确答案为D。

冒号的定义

colon:a punctuation mark;used chiefly to direct attention to matter (as a list, explanation, quotation, or amplification) that follows.引出下文的解释说明或者要引用的内容

冒号用法

英文中冒号的主要作用有以下两个:

1、use colons to introduce explanations or example解释说明或者举例

Eg1:This is her plan:go shopping.

2、use colons to introduce quotations.正式的引用前使用。

Eg1:The professor said: “It was horrible.”

涉及冒号的考试样题分析

It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of 14 it’s tiniest; the Thorne Miniature Rooms.

A) NO CHANGE

B) its tiniest;

C) its tiniest:

D) it’s tiniest,

解析:根据语意,很明显“the Thorne Miniature Rooms”是在说明“the tiniest”的是哪个,符合冒号最常见的用法一解释说明。此用法为最常见考点。

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