- 2018年05月08日19:58 来源：小站整理
- 参与（0） 阅读（1238）
5月5日SAT写作的文章选自2014年地New York Times，文章浅显易懂，歌颂地是当下的“分享经济”，鼓励更多的pharmaceutical companies分享临床试验数据，互通有无，分享相关地试验数据，提高研发新药的速度，减少药物的副作用，为社会做出更多的贡献。 请看全文逐段分析。
这篇文章的evidence部分主要运用的是medical evidence 和典型案例分析(case study)，并且用业内的leader做role model，增强persuasiveness;Reasoning的部分来说，主要的是contrast和cause-effect analysis，此外还有pre-emptivecounterargument; emotional appeals主要集中在文章的最后，用sense of duty/responsibility/ Samaritan spirit(好人精神)来uplift social morale.
Give the Data tothe People
1. LAST week, Johnson & Johnson announced that it was making all of its clinical trial data available to scientists around the world. It has hired my group, Yale University Open Data Access Project, or YODA, to fully oversee the release of the data. Everything in the company’s clinical research vaults, including unpublished raw data, will be available for independent review.
作者用Johnson &Johnson最近的announcement用以introduce the article.很显然，这个决定非常的突然而且让人感觉惊讶和heart-warming。
2. Thisis an extraordinary donation to society, and a reversal of the industry’s traditional tendency to treat data as an asset that would lose value if exposed to public scrutiny.
作者发表了对J& J决定的看法，作者用了extraordinary donation 这样的word choice来积极评价这个决定，这个决定无疑是对社会做出了巨大贡献。
3. Today, more than half of the clinical trials in the United States, including many sponsored by academic and governmental institutions, are not published within two years of their completion. Often they are never published at all. The unreported results, not surprisingly, are often those in which a drug failed to perform better than a placebo. As result, evidence-based medicine is, at best, based on only some of the evidence. One of the most troubling implications is that full information on a drug’s effects may never be discovered or released.
SAT写作原文解读：作者告诉了我们这个决定的社会背景，即半数以上的美国医药公司视临床试验数据为行业机密;同时，作者告诉我们，这种现象给社会带来的危害:the most troubling implications that full information on a drug’s effects may never be discovered or released.相比之下，J & J 公司的决定就显得很伟大。
4. Even when studies are published, the actual data are usually not made available. End-users of research — patients, doctors and policy makers — are implicitly told by a single group of researchers to “take our word for it.” They are often forced to accept the report without the prospect of other independent scientists’ reproducing the findings — a violation of a central tenet of the scientific method.
5. To Belfair, the decision to share data is not easy. Companies worry that their competitors will benefit, that lawyers will take advantage, that incompetent scientists will misconstrue the data and come to mistaken conclusions. Researchers feel ownership of the data and may be reluctant to have others use it. So Johnson & Johnson, as well as companies like GlaxoSmithKline and Medtronic that have made more cautious moves toward transparency, deserve much credit. The more we share data, however, the more we find that many of these problems fail to materialize.
SAT写作原文解读：作者继续表扬J&J的决定，说公司的决定不容易，同时作者在分析为何公司不愿意分享这些数据的原因，主要原因是competition和legal entanglement，作者反驳说，其实更多的公司，包括GSK和 Medtronic，加入公开临床数据的分享，这些担心的原因就越不会发生。
6. In2011, YODA struck a deal with Medtronic to release all the data on one of its products — a device that stimulates the production of bone. At the time, questions had been raised about the device’s safety, including whether it caused cancer, and about the conflicts of interests of some of the company’s researchers. Medtronic made the unusual decision to respond to the debate by releasing the device’s data for independent review. We commissioned and then published two independent reviews of the data, and now have made them globally available.
为了buttress claim，作者举了个例子(a case in point)，2011年YODA 与 Medtronic的合作，这一段主要围绕前段中提到的“为何公司担心分享临床试验数据”展开。
7. Interestingly, the reviews produced somewhat conflicting results. One found that the device was no better than a bone graft and might be associated with a slight increase in cancer, while the other found that the device was effective and the cancer risk inconclusive. To us these differences reinforce the value of open science: now the data are out there for further study.
作者继续在对这个案例进行详细分析;合作过程中发生的一些conflicting results等正好呼应了作者一开始担心的the most troubling implication，同时验证了分享临床数据的好处。
8. This program doesn’t mean that just anyone can gain access to the data without disclosing how they intend to use it. We require those who want the data to submit a proposal and identify their research team, funding and any conflicts of interest. They have to complete a short course on responsible conduct and sign an agreement that restricts them to their proposed research question. Most important, they must agree to share whatever they find. And we exclude applicants who seek data for commercial or legal purposes. Our intent is not to be tough gatekeepers, but to ensure that the data are used in a transparent way and contribute to overall scientific knowledge.
SAT写作原文解读：这里一段可以说是pre-empt了读者的potential concern，即分享临床数据并不代表这些数据可以被滥用，这样说的目的是打消target audience的顾虑，这样更多的医药公司能够加入分享临床数据的潮流中来。 这里大量地呼吁audience，再次重申了project地社会贡献。
9. There are many benefits to this kind of sharing. It honors the contributions of the subjects and scientists who participated in the research. It is proof that an organization, whether it is part of industry or academia, wants to play a roleas a good global citizen. It demonstrates that the organization has nothing to hide. And it enables scientists to use the data to learn new ways to help patients. Such an approach can even teach a company like Johnson & Johnson something it didn’t know about its own products.
这一段作者饱醮感情地歌颂了分享精神，希望更多地医药企业能够加入分享队伍，主要是通过appeals to their duty。
10. For the good of society, this is a breakthrough thatshould be replicated throughout the research world.
Write an essay in which you explain how Harlan M. Krumholz builds an argument to persuade his audience that …. In your essay, analyze how Krumholz uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.
纵观全文，虽然没有SAT写作中同学们最钟爱的Statistics 证据，但是具有很多关键的factual evidence 。这其中采用了concession and rebuttal的论证关系来阐明公开早就数据的可行性。对于目前的现状，通过irony来表明数据公开的紧迫性和必要性。而在文章末尾，又通过parallelism来列举该项计划的好处。可以组织的点比较多，但是一定要注意作者自身的参与是本文的一大亮点，也就是通过自身付出的努力来获得读者进一步的信任，以专家的姿态展现对于困难与好处的理解，并以科学的严谨态度和责任感来获得共鸣。