- 2017年12月03日15:10 来源：小站整理
- 参与（6） 阅读（18416）
第一篇Maya’s notebook Isabel Allende
选自一本比较新的小说(2013年出版)， Maya‘s notebook by Isabel Allende.从孙女的视角叙述祖父母(Popo & Nini)如何相遇相识。祖父是非洲长大的天文学家，自小生活在非洲。巨石(megaliths)上的图案激起了研究天文的兴趣，特别是执迷于寻找invisible plant。祖父来多伦多讲学的时候，祖母刚好被安排为他的司机。
第二题：问poetic calculation和leaps of imagination起到的作用，说明祖父研究行星的方法特点。
respected & with many accomplishment。
第二篇阅读：the stones of Venice
History Study。选自John Ruskin的文章The Stone of Venice 写于1853年，作者成长与工业革命飞速发展的年代，目睹了大量的英国人走进工厂。
文章立意为人性的重要意义，作者开篇即言明:You can either make a tool of creature or a man of him. You can't make them both. 的观点，批判工业化把人变得像机器一样，坚持认为制造业生产并非工业革命真正意义所在，如果单纯为了生产出零件而忽视了其中的人类精神和智慧的美丽，也便失去了对人性的尊重，所谓unhumanize them。 因此好的工业制造品无论在色泽工艺用料都应该是对人性的完美体现。
11、主旨题 问作者对于industrial labour的看法。
13、细节题 问factory work 太过怎样。
14、推断题 问作者对于mass production的看法。
16、细节提 问作者对于our manufacture cities的看法。
19、推断题 问作者认为consumer应该追捧什么样的beautiful things。
第三篇阅读：moths remember what they learn as caterpillars
The transformation from caterpillar to butterfly or moth is one of the most beguiling in the animal world. Both larva and adult are just stages in the life of a single animal, but are nonetheless completely separated in appearance, habitat and behavior. The imagery associated with such change is inescapably beautiful, and as entrancing to a poet as it is to a biologist.
According to popular belief, within the pupa, the caterpillar’s body is completely overhauled, broken down into a form of soup and rebuilt into a winged adult. Richard Buckmister Fuller once said that “there is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it’s going to be a butterfly.” Indeed, as the butterfly or moth quite literally flies off into a new world, it is tempting to think that there is no connection between its new life and its old existence as an eating machine.
But not so. A new study has provided strong evidence that the larval and adult stages are not as disparate as they might seem. Adult tobacco hookworms – a species of moth – can remember things that it learned as a caterpillar, which means that despite the dramatic nature of metamorphosis, some elements of the young insect’s nervous system remain intact through the process.
Using some mild electric shocks, Douglas Blackiston from Georgetown University trained hookworm caterpillars (Manduca sexta) to avoid the scent of a simple organic chemical – ethyl acetate. The larvae were then placed in the bottom end of a Y-shaped tube, with the scent of ethyl acetate wafting down one arm and fresh air coming down the other. Sure enough, 78% of the trained caterpillars inched down the odour-free arm.
As the caterpillar moulted their way through the larval stage, their aversion to ethyl acetate remained. Blackiston allowed them to pupate and emerge as full-grown moths, before testing them again, about a month after their initial ‘electric’ education. Bear in mind that a tobacco hornworm lives for about 30 to 50 days, so a month is very close to its entire lifespan.
Amazingly, 77% of the adult moths also avoided the ethyl acetate-scented arm of the Y-shaped tube and the vast majority of these were the adult versions of the same larvae that had correctly learned the behaviour originally. Clearly, the larvae had learned to avoid the chemical and that memory carried over into adulthood.
Even so, Blackiston was careful to rule out alternative explanations. For a start, ethyl acetate isn’t naturally foul-smelling. It’s actually rather reminiscent of pear drops and when larvae are exposed to it in the absence of electric shocks, neither they nor the adults they become learn to avoid it.
Another possible explanation hinges on the fact that adults emerging from the pupa usually experience a similar milieu of smells to their caterpillar selves. This chemical legacy’ could explain why adults and larvae react similarly to some odours. But when Blackiston applied ethyl acetate gel to the pupae of untrained caterpillars, the adults did not shrink away from the chemical. Nor did washing the pupae of trained caterpillars, to get rid of any lingering traces of ethyl acetate, have any effect.
Blackiston was convinced that some aspect of the caterpillar’ nervous system was carried over into adulthood. However, he also found that this only happened if caterpillars are trained at the last possible stage before they pupate – the ‘fifth instar’. Any earlier, and the memories don’t stick.
The fruitfly Drosophila suggests why this might happen. In its brain, memories of smells are located in mushroom bodies, brain structures that consist of three lobes. The gamma lobe develops very early while the alpha and beta lobes develop just before the pupal stage.
Blackiston thinks that long-lasting larval memories are writ into the alpha and beta lobes, whose neural networks are kept around while the rest of the caterpillar breaks down. If the larvae are too young, these areas haven’t developed yet and any learned information is stored in the gamma lobe and lost when its connections are trimmed back in the pupa.
But why bother? After all, the entire advantage of metamorphosis rests on the very different lifestyles and habitats of caterpillars and moths, which allow them to avoid competing with each other. Nonetheless, moths and butterflies must still return to the right sort of plant in order to lay their eggs and Blackiston suggests that their larva-hood memories may help them to do so.
文章是要介绍了毛毛虫(caterpillar)变成butterfly或者moth后，原有的记忆可以被保存下来。之后学者做了实验，训练caterpillar能够躲开特定的化学气味(ethyl acetate)，当caterpillars从幼虫阶段(larval stage)变形后，他们对于气味的厌恶被保留下来了。这种厌恶，一直被带到了他们的成年阶段。
之后，研究者开始做了一些实验，排除一些其他的可能性。他们发现，当没有“ electric shocks”，这些caterpillars不会厌恶那些化学元素( neither they nor the adults they become learn to avoid it)。他们也发现，尽管一些成年和幼虫( adults and larvae)都会对一些气味有厌恶，但是没有被训练过的caterpillars不会有厌恶。
之后，研究人员们也发现， larvae 如果太年轻，是无法保留这种厌恶的。“If the larvae are too young, these areas haven’t developed yet and any learned information is stored in the gamma lobe and lost when its connections are trimmed back in the pupa.”
第二题：词汇，问“form of soup”中“form”的意思;
第五题第六题：询证题，问香气(ethyl acetate)有什么样的特点;选 wild 的moth没有记忆不能avoid的选项;
第七题：词汇题，问“aspect” 的意思，选 “part”的那个;
COLUMBUS, Ohio—When it comes to buying things, our brains can’t see the big, black-and-white forest for all the tiny, colorful trees.
That’s the conclusion of a study at The Ohio State University, which found that people who were shown product images in color were more likely to focus on small product details—even superfluous ones—instead of practical concerns such as cost and functionality.
The findings, published in the Journal of Consumer Research, mesh well with notions of how vision evolved in the brain, and suggest that viewing objects in black and white helps our brains focus on what’s most important.
“Color images help us notice details,” said Xiaoyan Deng, an author of the study and assistant professor of marketing at Ohio State. “But black-and-white images let us see the ‘big picture’ without getting bogged down by those details.”
The findings also suggest how marketers can strategically use color—or its absence—to change how we feel about a product.
“Marketers may take it for granted that color is always the best presentation format for advertising,” Deng added. “This study shows that while color is desirable in most situations, it’s not desirable in all situations.”
If a product has broad features that set it apart from the competition, then black-and-white images will help customers cast aside minor details and focus on those key features, the researchers found. If a product’s details are what set it apart, color images will make those details stand out.
In one part of the study, 94 college students were asked to imagine that they were traveling to a remote campsite where they could receive only one radio station. There, the campsite manager offered two radios for rent: a basic analog radio for $10 a day, or a fancy digital radio with many station preset buttons for $18 a day. Not only was the digital radio more expensive, but its preset buttons would be useless at the campsite.
Students who saw pictures of the radios in black and white tended to make the practical choice—the analog radio. Only 25 percent chose the digital radio.
But among students who saw the radios in color, twice as many chose the digital radio. In that scenario, 50 percent of students were willing to pay a higher price for a radio with features that they could not use.
“Color drew their focus away from the most important features to the less important features, and their choice shifted to the more expensive radio,” Deng said. “I think that’s surprising—that just by manipulating whether the product presentation is in color or black and white, we can affect people’s choice.”
Color also proved to be a distraction when study participants were asked to sort objects into groups. The researchers recruited people through Amazon Mechanical Turk, a service that provides online study participants.
The 287 participants were shown pictures of shoes and asked to sort them. Each grouping contained two types of shoes that differed greatly in form and function, such as open-toe high heels and rain boots. In that particular example, half of the high heels and the boots were a solid red color, and the other half were red with white polka dots.
When people viewed the shoes in black and white, they sorted the high heels into one group and the rain boots into another 97 percent of the time. But when they saw the shoes in color, that number dropped to 89 percent, with 11 percent sorting the solid-color high heels and boots into one group and the polka-dot heels and boots into another.
The polka dots were clearly visible in black and white, but they had more impact on participants’ decision-making when they were seen in color.
Study co-author Kentaro Fujita, associate professor of psychology at Ohio State, has an idea why. It has to do with the origin of our visual systems, and how our brains process night vision.
Of the light-sensitive rod and cone structures in the retina, it’s the cones that detect color and the rods that give us night vision, peripheral vision and motion detection. Rods outnumber cones in the eye 20 to 1, and at night, when the cones don’t receive enough light to let us distinguish colors properly, we rely on the rods to see what’s happening around us—in black and white.
This would have been especially true for early humans, who didn’t have sources of artificial light. At night, being able to tell the difference between objects by shape would have been key to survival.
“Our visual systems evolved to work in both optimal and suboptimal conditions,” Fujita explained. “Optimal conditions might be during the day, when I want to distinguish a red apple from a not-so-red apple. The form of the object tells me it’s an apple, but I can focus on the color because that’s what’s important to me. Suboptimal conditions might be at night, when I have to tell whether that object that’s moving toward me is my friend or a hungry lion. Then the form of the object is critical.”
He suspects that when our eyes see black-and-white images, our brains interpret them in ways similar to night vision: We focus on form and function, and tend to ignore details.
Deng pointed out another circumstance in which people “see” in black and white: when we imagine the distant future. Other studies have shown that people who are asked to think of an event from the near or distant future and then presented with a series of photographs tend to pick less colorful photos as most closely matching their vision.
“It’s almost like seeing in black and white is a vehicle for time travel,” she said. “When you need to visualize ambiguous, uncertain future events, you want to get away from all those details, to construct that future event in your mind in a meaningful way. Seeing in black and white allows you to construct that event.”
Marketers can take advantage of our ability to time travel, too. Deng said that black-and-white images would probably work well in ads for products that will be used in the distant future, such as retirement plans, investments or insurance.
Co-authors on the paper included marketing doctoral student Hyojin Lee, who performed this research for her dissertation, and H. Rao Unnava, senior associate dean and W. Arthur Cullman Professor of Marketing in Ohio State’s Fisher College of Business.
2、New study 表明 黑白颜色是important feature，彩色是details;
3-5、Deng的实验结论1 黑白颜色为重要特点，彩色为细节信息，结论2 在现在商场中，利用彩色增加销售，两个结论之后跟了一个让步，并非所有都是利用彩色，有一定使用范畴，如果 产品在竞争者中功能足够强大，不需要强调色彩，可使用黑白颜色，反之，利用色彩增加销售;
6-9、一次实验调查，两种radio出租，一种黑白 功能实用，另一种 彩色 功能偏多，学生首选黑白色功能实用的，看到靓丽色彩之后 实验结构反转，更多人选择彩色，实验结论-色彩改变人民的feeling;
10、最后 心理学家解释其原理-于visual system有关。在视觉系统中，rod负责侦测形状，移动;cone负责侦测色彩。Rod是cone 20倍。举例，红色苹果，白天情况下，色彩被更好侦测到。 距离，朋友和狮子，夜晚rod 更佳重要。
第一题：主旨题，central idea;答案 关注色彩和黑白，反应不同的特点。其中错误选项添加比较关系。
第二题：细节题，问文章中两个专家 assumption of behavior;答案 找到了indicator。
第七题：词汇题 考察 manipulating ，原文语境为 是否被颜色 manipulate. Control。
第八题：词汇题 考察distinguish 搭配宾语为 color
第九题：功能题，问 a friend和a lion 作用是什么?答案 distinction in situation。
第十题：图标题，问 secondary，color 对应数值，6
第十一题：图文互联，问图标信息 支持了文章哪个观点; 答案：关注radio色彩的学生看中的 tail，关注黑白看中 important feature。
The quotation about self-censorship appeared in a controversial 2006 article in Trends in Plant Science proposing a new field of inquiry that the authors, perhaps somewhat recklessly, elected to call “plant neurobiology.” The six authors—among them Eric D. Brenner, an American plant molecular biologist; Stefano Mancuso, an Italian plant physiologist; František Baluška, a Slovak cell biologist; and Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh, an American plant biologist—argued that the sophisticated behaviors observed in plants cannot at present be completely explained by familiar genetic and biochemical mechanisms. Plants are able to sense and optimally respond to so many environmental variables—light, water, gravity, temperature, soil structure, nutrients, toxins, microbes, herbivores, chemical signals from other plants—that there may exist some brainlike information-processing system to integrate the data and coördinate a plant’s behavioral response. The authors pointed out that electrical and chemical signalling systems have been identified in plants which are homologous to those found in the nervous systems of animals. They also noted that neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate have been found in plants, though their role remains unclear.
Hence the need for plant neurobiology, a new field “aimed at understanding how plants perceive their circumstances and respond to environmental input in an integrated fashion.” The article argued that plants exhibit intelligence, defined by the authors as “an intrinsic ability to process information from both abiotic and biotic stimuli that allows optimal decisions about future activities in a given environment.” Shortly before the article’s publication, the Society for Plant Neurobiology held its first meeting, in Florence, in 2005. A new scientific journal, with the less tendentious title Plant Signaling & Behavior, appeared the following year.
Depending on whom you talk to in the plant sciences today, the field of plant neurobiology represents either a radical new paradigm in our understanding of life or a slide back down into the murky scientific waters last stirred up by “The Secret Life of Plants.” Its proponents believe that we must stop regarding plants as passive objects—the mute, immobile furniture of our world—and begin to treat them as protagonists in their own dramas, highly skilled in the ways of contending in nature. They would challenge contemporary biology’s reductive focus on cells and genes and return our attention to the organism and its behavior in the environment. It is only human arrogance, and the fact that the lives of plants unfold in what amounts to a much slower dimension of time, that keep us from appreciating their intelligence and consequent success. Plants dominate every terrestrial environment, composing ninety-nine per cent of the biomass on earth. By comparison, humans and all the other animals are, in the words of one plant neurobiologist, “just traces.”
Many plant scientists have pushed back hard against the nascent field, beginning with a tart, dismissive letter in response to the Brenner manifesto, signed by thirty-six prominent plant scientists (Alpi et al., in the literature) and published in Trends in Plant Science. “We begin by stating simply that there is no evidence for structures such as neurons, synapses or a brain in plants,” the authors wrote. No such claim had actually been made—the manifesto had spoken only of “homologous” structures—but the use of the word “neurobiology” in the absence of actual neurons was apparently more than many scientists could bear.
Passage 1 is from the websites of plants signaling and behavior;
第二段：介绍植物作为有生命的生命个体的四个特征，包括reactions to stimuli, use the cost-benefit analysis, territorial behavior;
第四段：将植物和动物进行比较，说明植物同动物一样可以对周围的环境作出反应，但是反应很长，not as rapid as animals;
Passage 2 is adapted from Michael Pollen “the Intelligent Plant”;
Both of passages are talking about plants neurobiology.
第二题和第三题双询证题：第二题四个选项涉及到第一篇文章的第二段和第三段，植物的反应is not as rapid as animals;
第五题和第六题：双询证题，考查第二篇文章第一段针对Trends in Plant Science的批评;
第十题和第十一题：涉及到Tai这个科学家的观点，Tai植物对于周围环境和刺激反应的原因一定会搞清楚的，与electronic and chemical方面的因素有关;