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新SAT写作范文逻辑结构分析 明确结构考试高分更容易

2016年08月10日16:35 来源:小站教育作者:小站SAT编辑
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摘要:新SAT写作考试发生了很大的变化,改革前后SAT作文在逻辑结构上有何区别呢?小站老师将为大家详细分析SAT作文的逻辑结构问题。

Essay部分是SAT改革变化最大的部分,但是要求考生写作的作文依然是议论文体裁的。那么,改革前后SAT作文在逻辑结构上有何区别呢?本文将以OG中样题“Bag Ban Bad for Freedom and Environment” 的一篇满分范文为例,为广大考生梳理一下改革后SAT作文的逻辑结构。

新SAT写作范文逻辑结构分析 明确结构考试高分更容易图1

1. 结构相同:

OG P219针对样题“Bag Ban Bad for Freedom and Environment”给出了一篇逻辑结构十分清晰的满分范文。范文分为五段:开头、结尾、3个主体段 (总--分--总结构),相信这是广大考生都熟悉的五段式结构,因此,该范文也是广大考生学习新SAT写作的很好范例。

2. 逻辑内容不同:

由于写作要求的颠覆性变革,SAT作文的内容不同于以往的考生提出观点并用自己积累的素材去论证,而是分析阅读文章作者如何论证他的观点,论证所需的论据全部来自阅读文章中,无需考生发表主观观点或提前准备任何素材。这就要求考生对英语议论文(阅读文章通常都是议论性的)的论说方式(包括evidence, reasoning and stylistic or persuasive elements即language)做到全面清洗的了解。接下来,本文就以OG范文为例,逐段分析新SAT写作在老结构中的新逻辑。

开头段要写作的内容包括:背景句(即引子,该部分内容为optional,可写可不写)、文章主旨(即作者的argument)、以及作者为论证自己argument所使用的手法(features)。其中,文章主旨和作者所使用的手法为开头段中心内容,必不可少。文章主旨直接体现考试对阅读文章的理解也直接关系着成绩中Reading的得分。作者所使用的手法是essay的写作要求(explain how the author persuade his audience),也就是考试所写作文的论点。看文章结构(通常3个主体段)的要求,论点句里考生需要提出3个作者在文中使用的突出手法。

废话不多说,上范文:

“Paper or Plastic?” This is often a question we are asked at our weekly and /or bi-weekly trip to the supermarket to purchase groceries to keep our family fed. Adam B. Summers has created a highly plausible argument that may change your answer next time you go grocery shopping. He has developed valid claims that are backed up with crucial evidence and has been able to properly persuade the reader by appealing to logos and other rhetorical strategies.

范文开头3句话,内容上分别是背景、作者态度和使用的手法,清晰明了。主体段中考生就要针对在开头段提出的手法进行逐一论证分析,主体段结构一致,每个段落也可归为总—分—总结构。

总:首先,给出一句分论点句即topic sentence,概括作者使用的手法之一。请看范文3个主体段落的topic sentence:

1. Summers uses his words and research to reason with the reader and explain to them why plastic bags really are the correct choice.

2. Evidence is a key component of this passage and summers is sure to include this when presenting us with key facts.

3. Persuasive elements are what make his passage successful.

每句topic sentence都明确提出作者使用的具体手法:use words and research to reason (即reasoning)、evidence、以及persuasive elements

分:指出手法之后要从阅读文章中给出使用该手法的内容,即textual evidence.值得注意的是考生在引用文本论据的时候要自然,要让引用(可以是直接引用,间接引用或者自己对原文意思的总结概括)成为自己分析的句子中的一个自然的成分,而不是生硬地照搬原文内容或者总结文章大意。以范文中分析evidence的第二个主体段为例:

He references important agencies such as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency….Evidence he also uses are facts as, “…”

总:给出作者使用某种手法的文本论据之后,段落结尾要对使用该手法的效果和作用进行总结。如范文各主体段结尾:

1. These four ideas are successfully connected and convince the reader to use plastic bags over paper bags and other types of reusable bags.

2. Without evidence, his passage would not mean a thing to us readers and we would never be able to believe what he has said.

3. With rhetorical strategies and direct examples, Summers is clearly able to persuade the reader to choose plastic next time.

效果和作用的总结可以从两个方面入手:一是对作者观点论述的作用,而是对读者情感态度的影响。

结尾段主要就是对开头的中心内容的总结,包括作者的argument,使用的手法及其效果,逻辑结构和开头段一致。如范文结尾:

So what will you choose next time you’re shopping for groceries with your family? Summers has made the choice obvious with his persuasive and effective passage. He has been able to develop several ideas and backed up with evidence that us readers can trust. After reading this passage, there seems to be no other choice than plastic.

新SAT写作范文逻辑结构分析 明确结构考试高分更容易图2

最后,为帮助大家更轻松快速掌握新SAT写作,这里和大家分享一些作文中常用的句式:

开头段作者者观点表达句:

Ÿ In the article “XX文章标题”, XX作者名 makes an argument claiming that … .

Ÿ In response to…, XX 作者名argues that… in his article “XX”.

Ÿ The principal issue addressed by the article “XXX”, written by XXX作者,is that…

论点句(即指出作者使用手法):

Ÿ He effectively builds his argument by using…, … and…

Ÿ Strategies of XX, XX and XX are employed to support his argument.

Ÿ He builds this claim by making use of…,…and….

主体段topic sentence表达:

Ÿ The author begins his essay with … saying that…

Ÿ It is through many rhetorical devices that author sells his argument.

Ÿ The author introduces … to maintain his argument.

Ÿ Through …, the author further establishes his argument that …

Ÿ He uses… to establish the fact that …, asking his audience to consider…

结尾段效果分析句式:

Ÿ By the end of this piece the readers will be likely to find themselves nodding in agreement with …

Ÿ After reading this passage, there seems to be no other choice than…

希望以上的讲解让大家对新SAT写作的逻辑结构有一个更深的了解,新SAT写作备考也需要大家在平时中多加下笔练习写文章和分析文章,相信大家的写作会有进步。

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特别申明:本文来自于小站教育【SAT写作】专栏,转载请以超链接形式标注本文出处,并附上此申明,否则将追究法律责任。

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