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SAT写作:经典人物素材之弗洛伊德

2018年03月20日16:17 来源:小站整理
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摘要:本文为大家介绍了弗洛伊德的生平故事、主要成就及理论。弗洛伊德是精神分析的创始人,其著作《梦的解析》享誉全世界。下面我们一起来看看能够有哪些可以运用到SAT写作中的素材吧。

弗洛伊德是精神分析学派的创始人,他开创了潜意识研究的新领域,促进了动力心理学、人格心理学和变态心理学的发展,奠定了现代医学模式的新基础,为20世纪西方人文学科提供了重要理论支柱。

SAT写作:经典人物素材之弗洛伊德图1

Medical doctor and founder of psychoanalysis. Born Sigismund Freud on May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia (now Pribor in the Czech Republic). At the age of four, Freud’s family relocated to Vienna, where he lived and worked for the majority of his life. Freud attended medical school at the University of Vienna where he focused his studies on biology for six years, under the renowned German scientist Ernst Brücke. In 1881, Freud received his medical degree and initially sought work at Vienna General Hospital before setting up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders.

医学博士和精神分析的创始人。1856年5月6日,生于斯基蒙德·弗洛伊德,在摩拉维亚(现在是捷克共和国的普里伯)。四岁的时候,弗洛伊德的家人搬到了维也纳,在那里他生活和工作了大部分时间。弗洛伊德就读于维也纳大学医学院,在那里,他将自己的生物学研究重点放在了德国著名科学家恩斯特·布鲁克的研究上,为期6年。1881年,弗洛伊德接受了医学学位,最初在维也纳综合医院寻求工作,后来在治疗心理障碍方面建立了私人诊所。

In 1885, Freud went to Paris where he became familiar with the technique of hypnosis. He soon deemed the effects of hypnosis as temporary and adopted an alternative method of treatment suggested by his friend Josef Breuer. Breuer felt that if troubled patients were encouraged to talk freely their symptoms would eventually subside ?hence the term “free association.? Freud and Breur further collaborated and developed the notion that many phobias were rooted in traumatic childhood experiences. The two doctors formulated that a patient needed to confront these past issues in order to let go of the phobia. They published their theory in Studies in Hysteria(1894), and their findings were considered revolutionary.

1885年,弗洛伊德去了巴黎,在那里他熟悉了催眠的技巧。他很快就认为催眠的作用是暂时的,并采用了他的朋友约瑟夫·布鲁尔提出的另一种治疗方法。Breuer认为,如果鼓励有问题的病人畅所欲言,他们的症状最终会消退,因此“自由联想”这个词就会出现。佛洛伊德和布鲁尔进一步合作,并发展出一种观念,即许多恐惧症都源于童年的创伤经历。两位医生制定了一个病人需要面对这些过去的问题,以摆脱恐惧。他们在《歇斯底里的研究》(1894)中发表了他们的理论,他们的发现被认为是革命性的。

Freud and Breuer eventually parted because of differences in opinion (Breuer felt that Freud placed too much emphasis on sexuality). Freud continued to work on his own and in 1900 he published The Interpretation of Dreams, which documented his own self-analysis. The book defined dreams as representations of repressed desires and was widely considered Freud’s greatest work.

弗洛伊德和布鲁尔最终因意见分歧而分道扬镳(布鲁尔认为弗洛伊德过分强调性)。弗洛伊德继续自己的工作,在1900年出版了《梦的解释》,记录了他自己的自我分析。这本书将梦定义为压抑欲望的表现,并被广泛认为是弗洛伊德最伟大的作品。

In his studies of child development, Freud concluded that between the ages of three and five children reached a turning point where they felt a strong attraction to the parent of the opposite sex (the Oedipal and Electra stages). Freud’s bold psychoanalytic theory, with its emphasis on sexuality, was thought to be scandalous and generally not well received. However, in 1908 the first International Psychoanalytical Congress was held in Saltzburg. Shortly after, Freud received recognition for his feats in psychology and a year later he was called upon to give lectures in America.

在他对儿童发展的研究中,弗洛伊德得出结论,在3到5岁的孩子们到达了一个转折点,他们对异性的父母有强烈的吸引力(恋母情结和爱电的阶段)。弗洛伊德的大胆的精神分析理论,强调性,被认为是可耻的,通常不受欢迎。然而,在1908年,第一次国际精神分析大会在萨尔茨堡举行。不久之后,弗洛伊德在心理学上得到了认可,一年后,他被邀请到美国做演讲。

Freudian theory was built upon the foundations of both medical science and philosophy. As a scientist, Freud was interested in seeing how the human mind affected the body particularly by studying paranoia, hysteria, and other mental illnesses. As a theorist, he explored basic truths about how personalities are formed. In 1923, Freud ventured so far as to develop a model of the human mind, consisting of three elements -- the ego, the id, and the superego. During his creatively productive life, Freud published over twenty volumes of theory and clinical studies in which he coined concepts and terms, including libido, subconscious and inferiority complex, that permeated Western culture.

弗洛伊德学说是建立在医学科学和哲学基础之上的。作为一名科学家,弗洛伊德感兴趣的是,通过研究偏执、歇斯底里和其他精神疾病,人类的大脑如何影响身体。作为一个理论家,他探索了关于人格如何形成的基本真理。在1923年,弗洛伊德大胆地提出了一种人类思维的模型,包括三个要素——自我、身份和超我。在他创造性的创作生涯中,弗洛伊德发表了二十多卷的理论和临床研究,他创造了概念和术语,包括性欲、潜意识和自卑情结,渗透到西方文化中。

以上就是关于弗洛伊德的SAT写作素材整理,希望能够帮助到大家。小站会一直陪在大家身边,祝考试的宝宝们取得好成绩!

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