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SAT写作高分 从提升逻辑分析能力开始

2018年06月21日13:39 来源:小站整理
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摘要:SAT写作的三项评分标准中:阅读、分析和写作,其实很好的涵盖了一篇评论性写作的基本三步骤,首先你得有好的阅读能力读懂文章,之后要有很强的逻辑分析能力来解构这个文章,并最终可以在文字上清晰地表达出来。这三个环节中,最难的其实是在第二步。

从很多学生SAT写作成绩的三项得分数据来看,最为困扰大家的是analysis,也就是关于要是关于reasoning逻辑推理的考查,其实不单对国人来说它最难,对母语老外来说也如此,应该如何攻克呢?

SAT写作高分 从提升逻辑分析能力开始图1

过一些美国人教SAT写作,作为写作老师,考自己的母语考试,写作分数也是8/7/8,唯一没有满分的就是analysis一项。其实大家不必太过于苛求analysis的分数,本来写作就是一个主观科目,SAT写作又是评析性写作,类似于中国的阅读理解一样,就像咱们答高考语文,也同样很难在阅读理解上得到满分。每个人对于文章都有自己不同的理解,所以只要大家在SAT写作analysis上尽可能得到相对的高分——6分或者7分,加上其他两项相对好得分的reading和writing,那么整体分数就很乐观了。

根据SAT写作考查方向来看,除了分析论据之外,我们必须还要关注阅读文章作者是如何“排兵布阵”,组织论据,证明论点的,也就是要分析阅读文章的论证方式。所以说,evidence论据解决的是“用什么来论证”的问题,而reasoning论证解决的则是“如何使用论据证明论点”的问题。一篇议论文,如果只是几个例子,数据,事实等论据简单陈述甚至是杂乱无章的列罗的话,那么读者也同样会一头雾水,不知所云,逻辑混乱,也不会接收到文章想要传达的最核心的内容。所以高质量的议论文必定会采用清晰的逻辑顺序,合理的结构安排,顺畅的行文思路来展开自己的论述。

关于reasoning一项考查的最浅显的部分就是对于文章的结构把握,常见的议论文逻辑结构有:

Pattern 1 Definition

(1) add to the definition by offering specific examples;

(2) provide information about history, location, context, or usage;

(3) explain how the term differs from a similar word or phrase;

(4) further define the key term by introducing its antonym, or term opposite in meaning.

Pattern 2 Comparison and Contrast

(1) With the help of comparison, authors can help readers better understand the things being compared. For example, comparing something abstract with something concrete and familiar may help readers easily know the former.

(2) With the help of contrast, authors will be able to emphasize something effectively by putting it in front of its opposite. For example, by putting the beautiful and the ugly, or the good and the evil together, an author can easily convince readers the beauty or kindness of a person.

Pattern 3 Cause and Effect

The process of explaining how an event leads to or produces another is the pattern of cause and effect. In this pattern, if A leads to B, A is called the cause while B the effect. The pattern of cause and effect, when used, helps readers to have a clear understanding of not only what happens or what happens first, but more importantly why something happens, which is essential for knowing about an event.

Pattern 4 Time Order

Writers use the process pattern to tell their readers how something works, happens, or develops.

(1) describe what made a particular span of time eventful or memorable, making people realize the significance or influence of something;

(2) chart the career of an important figure, helping readers to have a better understanding of the person discussed;

(3) explain how some theory, invention, or activity came to be part of culture or history, building a general background for readers or to help them realize the significance of them.

Pattern 5 classifications

In the classification pattern, the order of the supporting details is also not important. However, there is a critical difference between simple listing and classification. Paragraphs relying on the classification pattern always make the same point: They tell the reader how some larger group can be broken down into smaller subgroups, or classes, each with its own defining set of characteristics. The use of classification patterns can help readers to understand easier abstract or complicated concepts, ideas, or events.

关于逻辑推理考查的比较深刻的部分就是对于原阅读文章逻辑行文走向的考查,所以除了上面提到的一种相对简单的reasoning之外,大家如果想在reasoning这项再获取更多分数的话,就要对文章的句子和句子之间的逻辑,段落和段落之间的逻辑分析的越细致越全面越好。而这个能力不是一朝一夕能练成的,需要大家进行大量的高质量的阅读地道的议论文才能慢慢提高,这也是reasoning为什么难得分的原因。另外,我还建议大家在考试的时候也可以适当的用自己习惯的符号或者批注的方式进行细致的标注,这样你会对这篇文章的逻辑做到一目了然。

附SAT写作的评分标准:

新SAT作文分数是如何打出来的,满分是多少?

和旧SAT写作一样,每篇作文的分数都是由两位阅卷人所打分数相加得来。不同之处在于,每位阅卷人分别要对Reading,Analysis,Writing三个单项打分(1-4),各单项分数相加得到最终作文分数(也是由三个单项分数组成),满分8/8/8。

而最让人惊异的是,阅卷人打分所用的时间只有几十秒中,基本等于把文章扫一遍,分数就立即打出了!

官方对每个单项的满分要求是什么?有什么需要特别注意的?

Reading

The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text.

The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.

解析:对这部分官方的要求已经很清楚了,概括来说就是要:准确理解作者的中心思想和最重要细节,分析这些细节与作者观点之间的联系,熟练运用引用或转述来展现对文章的理解。

需要注意的是,“准确理解”是新SAT写作最基础的要求,也是我们得分的前提。只要正确概括重要细节并做合理解析,Reading的分数就不难拿到手。但是,假若理解错误,那么不仅Reading,Analysis,甚至Writing的分数也全都不可能得到了!因此,选择细节时,除了需要确定细节与作者论点之间的联系之外,还要务必避免那些自己读不懂的内容。

Analysis

The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task.

The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing.

The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made.

The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

解析:这是官方最让人摸不着头脑的描述,总之就是一个要求:分析要深入,透彻且必须围绕观点进行。那么怎样写才算达到了“insightful”“thorough”的要求呢?通过研究官方范文analysis部分评语发现,只要能够分析出细节的深层含义(connotation),说明细节如何能够论证作者观点以及为什么能够达到说服读者的效果,analysis的要求就算达到了。

Writing

The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language.

The response includes a precise central claim.

The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.

The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors.

解析:除了对开头结尾的要求之外,其余标准大致与其他写作考试一致:行文连贯,句式多样,用词准确、正式,少语法错误。连贯性主要通过逻辑连接词和语意重复来加强,至于句式和用词,可以通过借鉴和范文中的表达,提升自己的语言质量。提高语言质量是一项长期任务,只有通过不断磨练,才能渐臻佳境。

以上就是小编为大家带来的《SAT写作高分 从提升逻辑分析能力开始》的全部内容。希望考生们能听取这些建议与叮嘱放松心情,将SAT考试看成是因公出国旅游,岂不妙哉。更多SAT备考知识与技巧攻略,请持续关注小站SAT频道。祝2018年与SAT一战即高分。

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