- 2018年03月12日20:51 来源：小站整理
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SAT Essay March 10, 2018 HK
As you read the passage below, consider how Mohamed Ibrahim uses
- evidence, such as factors or examples, to support claims.
- reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
- stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.
Adapted from Mohamed Ibrahim, “Looting Egypt’s heritage”, by the Washington Post. Oct. 18, 2013
1 Egypt’s future lies in its history, particularly its archaeological history. For hundreds of years the mystery and wonders of the pyramids, the sphinx and the Valley of the Kings have attracted visitors from around the world. Tourism is the lifeblood of Egypt’s economy and touches the lives of most Egyptians, whether they work as tour guides, restaurant owners, craftsmen or bus operators. Egypt’s history holds the prosperity of the country’s future generations, including that of youths — more than 40 million Egyptians are age 30 or younger — who are seeking opportunities.
2 But thieves are raiding our archaeological sites and selling their findings to the highest bidders. They are taking advantage of Egypt’s security situation to loot our nation’s economic future and steal from our children.
3 Egyptians need the people and the government of the United States to support our efforts to combat the systematic and organized looting of our museums and archaeological sites. Imagine a world in which the stories of King Tut, Cleopatra, Ramesses and others were absent from the collective consciousness. And with much of our history still waiting to be discovered under the sand, the potential losses are staggering. Antiquities theft is one of the world’s top crimes — after the trafficking of weapons, narcotics and people — but it is seldom addressed.
4 Egyptian antiquities are flooding international markets. Recent auctions at Christie’s in London and New York included several items from Egypt. Fortunately, when contacted, Christie’s in London withdrew a number of items that had been stolen from the tomb of King Amenhotep III, discovered in 2000 in Luxor. Among the items was a steatite bust of an official dating from 1793 to 1976 B.C.
5 Although arrests were made in this case, and two auction houses in Jerusalem canceled the sale of 126 antiquities after being contacted by Egyptian officials, the tide unfortunately flows in the other direction. After being contacted by the Egyptian foreign ministry, other auction houses have been unwilling to cooperate with requests to delay or cancel sales of items that experts assess have been stolen. Among those who make their money selling antiquities, cooperation with the Egyptian government has been mixed at best.
6 Looting is a centuries-old business and a crime that Egyptians will no doubt be fighting for years, especially during difficult economic times. Our country is willing to take a strong stand. No one can forget the stark images of Egyptians — men and women, Muslims and Christians, young and old — creating a human shield to protect the Egyptian Museum in Cairo during the 2011 revolution. Still, thieves succeeded in stealing several items from its collection. Despite our government’s best efforts to retrieve those artifacts, more than 50 items, including some from the famous King Tut tomb, remain missing.
7 In the Aug. 14 attack on the Malawi National Museum, in Minya, more than 1,000 items were taken: statues more than 3,500 years old; jewelry from the time of the ancient Pharaohs; Greco-Roman gold coins. When security forces tried to stop them, the thieves burned some items they could not take, including mummies.
8 Every day, Egyptians risk their lives to prevent organized gangs from stealing our heritage. Our country is not the only place under attack: Iraq, Syria, Libya, Peru and Guatemala are suffering similar assaults on their heritage. Halting these crimes on our civilization will require a coordinated global effort — from both the “producers” and the “consumers.”
9 It is our common duty, in Egypt and around the world, to defend our shared heritage. International institutions, governments, business, archaeologists and other experts must come together to explore how to help countries in need protect their treasures. The efforts of groups such as the International Coalition to Protect Egyptian Antiquities are appreciated — but much more aid is necessary. The youths of Egypt deserve more. There is no time to waste.
Write an essay in which you explain how Mohamed Ibrahim builds an argument to persuade his audience that people should do more to protect the Egyptian ancient artifacts. In your essay, analyze how Ibrahim uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Gillis's claims, but rather explain how Gillis builds an argument to persuade his audience.
P 1: 埃及的历史和文物对于其未来的发展很重要，因为这些资源对于该国发展旅游业，带动其经济发展至关重要。
作者在开篇通过一个强烈的contrast让读者意识到文物保护的重要性。他不仅明确指出了文物对于埃及经济发展的重要性，因为基于文物和历史的旅游业是“the lifeblood of Egypt’s economy”，而且他也暗示了其对于全世界人民的意义，因为我们无法失去承受这样的损失--“a world in which the stories of King Tut, Cleopatra, Ramesses and others were absent from the collective consciousness.”这些意义与他在第二段中提到的埃及文物遭到抢掠的事实(thieves are raiding our archaeological sites and selling their findings to the highest bidders)形成鲜明的对比，让读者得到应该支持保护埃及文物。
紧接着，为了增强其说服力，作者分成了两个方面来向读者展示问题的严重性。他先在P4-5证明了对于非法获取的文物的买卖很猖獗(Egyptian antiquities are flooding international markets.)，然后再在P6-7证明掳掠文物的行为很严重(In the Aug. 14 attack on the Malawi National Museum, in Minya, more than 1,000 items were taken)，这样做的好处不仅是强调了问题的严重性，且让人们知道了问题解决的方向，所以，在文章的最后，当作者提出这个问题的解决需要从“both the “producers” and the “consumers”两个方面来进行时，读者被彻底说服了。
P3中提到trafficking of weapons, narcotics and people，把“Antiquities theft”的行为跟这种所有人都反感的top crime放在一起进行对比，激起了民众对于这种行为的憎恨。
P2中提到了“steal from our children”，更容易激起读者的同情心，因为孩子遭受的苦难和损失往往更容易触动读者，这对于读者产生对偷到文物的行为的反感也有帮助。
Appeals to emotion:
P1和P3都罗列一些公众耳熟能详的埃及文物，“mystery and wonders of the pyramids, the sphinx and the Valley of the Kings”，“the stories of King Tut, Cleopatra, Ramesses”。这些景观和抑制对让读者回忆起自己感受过的壮观景象，对他们肯定文物的价值，加强保护的意识也有作用。
P8“Our country is not the only place under attack: Iraq, Syria, Libya, Peru and Guatemala are suffering similar assaults on their heritage.”作者提到其他国家面临的类似问题，把问题的意义上升到国际社会的层面，对读者意识到解决问题的意义也是有触动的。
P9“There is no time to waste”激起了人们对于这个解决问题的紧迫感(sense of urgency)