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新sat写作高分技巧:玩转5个高频修辞

2016年01月27日18:04 来源:小站整理
参与(5) 阅读(5535)
摘要:新sat考试马上就要来了,今天小编就为大家讲解一下5个高频修辞的介绍,让大家在阅读文章时更加容易理解。

新sat写作需要三个技能:reading, analyzing和writing。


首先考试中,考生会拿到一篇500w左右的文章进行阅读。举个例子:

Adapted from Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. Originally published December 21, 2012.

At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness…

本文节选于官方范文的阅读材料。由此可见,阅读部分的词汇相对较广泛,需要考生们在单词上多加积累。

其次在理解的基础上,考生要求对文章的论证进行分析,并写成一篇600-650w的文章。举个例子:

Bogard starts his article off by recounting a personal story – a summer spent on a Minnesota lake where there was “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes.” In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess. He builds his argument for the preservation of natural darkness by reminiscing for his readers a first-hand encounter that proves the “irreplaceable value of darkness." This anecdote provides a baseline of sorts for readers to find credence with the author’s claims.

本段落节选与官方范文,可见在文章分析部分,对修辞方法的分析是新sat写作的一个重要部分。所以,在这里介绍五个基础修辞,帮大家玩转新sat写作。

新sat写作高分技巧:玩转5个高频修辞图1

修辞一Simile 明喻

Simile用于比较两个不相似的事物,前后两部分用like或者as连接。如,你像王思聪一样有钱。You are as rich as Sicong Wang.

功能:Simile的主要功能是吸引读者的注意力,鼓励他们用联想的能力对作者要传达的思想进行理解。如果我说你有钱,很难让人理解你到底多么有钱,如果拿国民老公来明喻就清晰多了。

举例:The village of Holcomb stands on the high wheat plains of western Kansas, a lonesome area that other Kansans call “out there.” Some seventy miles east of the Colorado border, the countryside, with its hard blue skies and desert-clear air, has an atmosphere that is rather more Far Western than Middle West. The local accent is barbed with a prairie twang, a ranch-hand nasalness, and the men, many of them, wear narrow frontier trousers, Stetsons, and high-heeled boots with pointed toes. The land is flat, and the views are awesomely extensive; horses, herds of cattle, a white cluster of grain elevators rising as gracefully as Greek temples are visible long before a traveler reaches them.

分析:With the simile, “a white cluster of grain elevators rising as gracefully as Greek temples,” he almost points toward a happy, prosperous side of the town for the first and perhaps only time in this passage. Not long after this sentence, however, the author describes the streets as “unnamed, unshaded, unpaved,” returning to his description of the village as desolate and empty, so destroyed that it is almost primitive.

修辞二Metaphor 隐喻

Metaphor与Simile最大的区别是不存在“像”这个词,通常的形式是“甲是乙”。如,你是我的小苹果。

功能:Metaphor和simile的功能大致相同,均为吸引读者注意力,帮助读者更好的理解文章。

修辞三Personification 拟人

personification是赋予某一事物或概念以人的特征。如,理想很丰满,现实很骨感。

功能:Personification的修辞使表达更加生动,帮助读者更好的理解作者的意图。除此之外,Personification还能够帮助作者表达更深层次的含义。

举例:Until one morning in mid-November of 1959, few Americans—in fact, few Kansans—had ever heard of Holcomb. Like the waters of the river, like the motorists on the highway, and like the yellow trains streaking down the Santa Fe tracks, drama in the shape of exceptional happenings, had never stopped there.

分析:The author uses personification at the end of the passage, stating that “drama . . . had never stopped there.” The position of these words, just after he discusses the positive aspects of the school and its students’ families, results in yet another contrast, another mysterious solemnity.

修辞四personal anecdote 个人轶事

Personal anecdote即在文章中通过讲述作者的个人故事,引导读者更清晰的理解作者要表达的意图。

举例:At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness.

分析:Bogard starts his article off by recounting a personal story – a summer spent on a Minnesota lake where there was “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes.” In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess.

新sat写作高分技巧:玩转5个高频修辞图2

修辞五Allusion 间接提及

Allusion不详细的描述所提及的事物,作者期待读者足够的相关知识。如,不要像个林黛玉一样。

功能:Allusion的主要功能是通过间接提及读者熟悉的概念来帮助读者更好的理解作者想要表达的意思。

举例:In a world awash with electric light...how would Van Gogh have given the world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren?

Even Paris, the famed "city of light," which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing.

分析:Bogard’s argument is also furthered by his use of allusion to art – Van Gogh’s "Starry Night" – and modern history – Paris’ reputation as “The City of Light”. By first referencing “Starry Night”, a painting generally considered to be undoubtedly beautiful, Bogard establishes that the natural magnificence of stars in a dark sky is definite. A world absent of excess artificial light could potentially hold the key to a grand,glorious night sky like Van Gogh’s according to the writer. This urges the readers to weigh the disadvantages of our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting.

最后,叮嘱各位考生,方法是可行的,但仅靠方法是万万不行的。在掌握方法的同时,经过量的积累才会产生质的变化。赶快行动起来。


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